Comparison of health related physical fitness in children with intellectual disability vs. typically developing children: A case control study; A Hypothesis

Vol 6 | Issue 1 | Jan - Dec 2020 | page: 13-15 | Ketaki Mandke, Apurv Shimpi, Suroshree Mitra

Author: Ketaki Mandke [1], Apurv Shimpi [1], Suroshree Mitra [1]

[1] Community Physiotherapy department, Sancheti Institute College of Physiotherapy, Thube Park, Shivaji Nagar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Institute at which research was conducted: Sancheti institute College of Physiotherapy, Thube park, Shivajinagar Pune 411005, Maharashtra.
University Affiliation of Thesis: Research hypothesis (synopsis) submitted for MPT registration to Maharashtra University of Health Sciences (MUHS), Nashik.
Year of Acceptance: 2020.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Apurv Shimpi,
Sancheti Institute College of Physiotherapy, 12, Thube Park, Shivaji Nagar, Pune - 411005, Maharashtra.


Background: Health related physical fitness is a key indicator of health outcome. It is necessary to carry out day to day physical activity. Association between levels of physical activity and fitness is an indicator that lack of physical activity will lead to lower levels of physical fitness and vice a versa. In children population, it is been stated that daily needs of physical activity are not met as per the standards and the scenario appears to be worse for the population of children with intellectual disability. Attempts have been made to assess health related physical fitness of children with intellectual disabilities and comparisons have been made with their typically developing peers or more normal children, these children are more likely to be obese compared to typically developing children. But as most of these studies are carried out in the western countries there is a dearth of literature in understanding health related physical fitness of children with intellectual disability in India. 95% of children in India fall under the category of intellectually disabled. There is also a lack of nutrition in such special children. Present study hypothesized that there is a difference in health related physical fitness of children with intellectual disability versus their typically developing peers. 224 children will be recruited and divided among the case and the control group. Assessment will be done using the Brockport physical fitness test (BPFT) battery. Statistical analysis will be done using unpaired t test.
Clinical importance: Knowing the differences in the physical fitness levels of intellectually disabled and typically developing children will help in targeting the population with lower levels of fitness by planning out specific group activities.
Future directions: On the basis of the assessment an exercise protocol can be planned to improve overall physical activity levels and health.
Keywords: Physical fitness, special children, disabilities, intellectual, learning.


1. Chen W, Hammond-Bennett A, Hypnar A, Mason S. Health-related physical fit-ness and physical activity in elementary school students. BMC public health. 2018 Dec;18(1):195.
2. Davis K, Zhang G, Hodson P, Boswell B, Decker J. A Close Look at the Physical Fitness Levels of Elementary Age Students with Intellectual Disabilities. Sport Sci-ence Review. 2010 Aug 1;19(3-4):19-34.
3. Kalgotra R, Warwal JS. Intellectual disability in India: An overview. Journal of Disability Studies. 2017 Sep 4;3(1):15-22.
4. Mathur M, Bhargava R, Benipal R, Luthra N, Basu S, Kaur J, Chavan BS. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status in Mentally [Page : 16] Retarded Children and Adoles-cents: A Study from North Western India. Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 2007;3(2):22-9.
5. Einarsson IO, Olafsson A, Hinriksdóttir G, Jóhannsson E, Daly D, Arngrímsson SA. Differences in physical activity among youth with and without intellectual disa-bility. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2015 Feb 1;47(2):411-8.[7]
6. Ng K, Sainio P, Sit C. Physical Activity of Adolescents with and without Disabili-ties from a Complete Enumeration Study (n= 128,803): School Health Promotion Study 2017. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019 Jan;16(17):3156.
7. Wouters M, Evenhuis HM, Hilgenkamp TI. Physical fitness of children and adoles-cents with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities. Disability and rehabilitation. 2019 Apr 5:1-1.
8. Izquierdo-Gómez R, Martínez-Gómez D, Fernhall B, Sanz A, Veiga ÓL. The role of fatness on physical fitness in adolescents with and without Down syndrome: The UP&DOWN study. International Journal of Obesity. 2016 Jan;40(1):22-7
9. Golubović Š, Maksimović J, Golubović B, Glumbić N. Effects of exercise on physical fitness in children with intellectual disability. Research in developmental disabilities. 2012 Mar 1;33(2):608-14.
10. Yanardag M, Arikan H, Yilmaz I, Konukman F. Physical fitness levels of young adults with and without intellectual disability. Kinesiology: International journal of fundamental and applied kinesiology. 2013 Dec 31;45(2):233-40.
11. Emerson E, Robertson J, Baines S, Hatton C. Obesity in British children with and without intellectual disability: cohort [Page : 15] study. BMC Public Health. 2016 Dec;16(1):644.
12. Frey GC, Chow B. Relationship between BMI, physical fitness, and motor skills in youth with mild intellectual disabilities. International journal of obesity. 2006 May;30(5):861-7
13. Lakhan R, Ekúndayò OT, Shahbazi M. An estimation of the prevalence of intellec-tual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India. Journal of neurosciences in rural practice. 2015 Oct;6(04):523-8.
14. Wouters M, Evenhuis HM, Hilgenkamp TI. Systematic review of field-based physical fitness tests for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Re-search in developmental disabilities. 2017 Feb 1;61:77-94.
15. Queralt A, Vicente-Ortiz A, Molina-García J. The physical activity patterns of adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A descriptive study. Disability and health journal. 2016 Apr 1;9(2):341-5.
16. Gulati A, Hochdorn A, Paramesh H, Paramesh EC, Chiffi D, Kumar M, Gregori D, Baldi I. Physical activity patterns among school children in India. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2014 Sep 1;81(1):47-54
17. Winnick JP. Introduction to the Brockport physical fitness test technical manual. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 2005 Oct 1;22(4):315-22.

How to Cite this Article: Mandke K, Shimpi A, Mitra S. Comparison of health related physical fitness in children with intellectual disa-bility vs. typically developing children: A case-control study; A hypothesis. Journal Medical Thesis 2020 Jan-Dec ; 6(1):13-15.

Download Full Text PDF | Download Full Text Thesis